In vitro and in vivo evaluation of antitrypanosomal activity of Annona muricata stem bark extracts



The control of trypanosomosis in animals and humans based on chemotherapy is limited and not ideal, since the agents used are associated with severe side effects, and emergence of relapse and drug resistant parasites. The need for the development of new, cheap and safe compounds stimulated this study. Three concentrations (211, 21.1 and 2.11 mg per ml) of chloroform stem bark extract of Annona muricata were screened for trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei in vitro Also, two doses (200 mg per kg and 100 mg per kg) of the extract were evaluated for trypanocidal activity in rats infected with the parasite. Haematological parameters were determined on day 1 post infection and on days 1, 6 and 30-post extract treatment. The extracts inhibited parasite motility and totally eliminated the organisms at the concentrations used in vitro The extract also showed promising in vivo trypanocidal activity. The observed in vitro and in vivo trypanocidal activities may be due to the presence of bioactive compounds present in the extracts as seen in this study. The extract also improved the observed decreases in haematological parameters of the treated rats, which may be due to their ability to decrease parasite load. The observed oral LD50 of 1,725.05 mg per kg of the chloroform A muricata extract using up and down method is an indication of very low toxicity, implying that the extract could be administered with some degree of safety.
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