The effect of irrigation and fertigation in artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. ssp. flavescens Wikl.) culture



Artichoke for pharmaceutical purposes should be characterized by high yield and content of active substances (CQA, flawonoids), an exclusively vegetative growth in the first year of cultivation and homogeneity of raw material. Drugs available on the market comes mainly from vegetative artichoke plantations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of additional drip irritation with spreading fertilization and fertilizing drip irrigation (fertigation) applied to artichoke. The experiment was conducted on silt-loam in 2004-2006 on experimental fields at the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. In the experiment effects of supplemental drip irrigation with T-Tape and additional fertigation with 0.2% solution of Universol Green on the background of unwatered object were compared. Terms of irrigation and the soil moisture were tested with ThetaProbe device according to the dielectric properties of soil. Seeds of ‘Green Globe’ variety were sown in May and leaves were harvested two times a year (1st – in the second decade of August, 2nd – in the second decade of October). Chemical analyses comprised sum of polyphenolic compounds (caffeoylquinic acids) and flavonoids content by HPL C and FC method. Higher yields of artichoke were obtained with use of fertigation mode, with an increase higher than 20% and 50% as compared to drip irrigation and control plots. Generally, supplemental irrigation or fertigation was connected with better developed plants that produced greater number of longer and wider leaves and, as a result, higher raw material weight in both terms of harvest. Artichoke raw material obtained from plots with additional water or water with nutrients supply was characterized by smaller caffeoylquinic acids content in two following harvest dates studied, whereas flavonoids content remained higher than control. At the same time recalculated flavonoids and CQA yields were the highest after both irrigation and fertigation. Key words: artichoke, Cynara cardunculus L. ssp. flavescens Wikl., irrigation, fertigation, leaves yield, CQA content, flavonoids content
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