Antimicrobial activity of leaf and flowering cones of Abies cilicica ssp. cilicica (Pinaceae) crude extracts
Introduction: Abies cilicica ssp. cilicica is an endemic species grown naturally in Syria. This taxon could be a potential and promising source of antimicrobial activity. Objective: Methanolic, ethanolic and acetonic extracts of leaf (LE) and flowering cones (FE) of A. cilicica ssp. cilicica plant were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against 3 bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and two fungi (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger) pathogens. Methods: A. cilicica antimicrobial activity was evaluated by disc-diffusion method (zone of inhibitions-ZIs), activity index (AI) and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (Microdilution broth susceptibility assay). Similarly, ciprofloxacin (10 mg/ml) and nystatin (5 μg/ml) antibiotics were used as a standard for the antimicrobial activity of bacteria and fungi isolates, respectively. Results: Data revealed that the acetone FE with highest ZIs and lowest MICs showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against tested pathogens, while, ethanol LE was the lowest potent extract against all tested microorganisms. P. vulgaris bacteria was considered as the most sensitive isolate by showing the lowest MICs value of 0.52 μg/ml, whereas, A. niger fungus was pronounced as the most tolerant isolate by expressing the highest MICs value of 26.67 μg/ml. Conclusion: The current investigation proved the potential activity of A. cilicica extracts as an antibacterial and an antifungal source grown naturally in Syria.