Biochemical effects of aequous leaf extract of Abrus precatorius (Jecquirity bean) in Swiss albino mice

SAGANUWAN ALHAJI SAGANUWAN, PATRICK AZUBUIKE ONYEYILI

Abstract

The leaf of Abrus precatorius has been used in Nigeria for the treatment of myriad of diseases including malaria, typhoid, cough, respiratory tract infections and hepatitis. Since the plant, especially the seeds, has been widely known to be toxic, there is a need to investigate biochemical and histopathological effect of aqueous extract of Abrus leaf in swiss albino mice. Biochemical analysis revealed significantly (p<0.05) increased aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, urea, and chloride ion. There were also noted hypophosphataemia, hypokalaemia and hypoglycaemia (p<0.05). Histopathology revealed mononuclear cellular infiltrations of heart, lung, liver, intestine, spleen and kidney cells. Zenker’s necrosis of hepatocytes, thickening of interalveolar septae of pneumocytes and degeneration of splenic and kidney cells were observed as well. Hence aqueous extract of Abrus precatorius leaf is toxic at dose levels of 12.5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight when administered for a period of 21 days. Key words: biochemical parameter, Abrus precatorius, leaf, toxicity
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