Chemical variability of common skullcap (Scutellaria galericulata L.) wild growing in the area of eastern Poland



Introduction. In the group of plants revealing adaptogenic activity, species belonging to Scutellaria genus are considered to be the most important ones. Common skullcap (Scutellaria galericulata L.) is less known species from this genus, growing wild in Poland in wet habitats. Its herb has been used in the past as a sedative and diuretic agent. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the variability of common skullcap in terms of the accumulation of flavonoids in the herb. Methods. The objects of the study were 17 common skullcap populations growing wild in eastern Poland. At each natural site, the list of main flowering plant species was carried out, according to Braun-Blanquet scale of plant abundance. The total content of flavonoids was determined according to EP 8th. The analysis of flavonoids was carried out using HPLC, Shimadzu chromatograph. Results. The total content of flavonoids ranged from 0.21 to 0.50% dry matter (DM). Using HPLC, eight compounds were identified within the group, with chrysin-7-O-glucuronide (30.91–589.27 mg × 100 g-1 DM), baicalin (61.90–482.93 mg × 100 g-1 DM) and scutellarin (43.77–213.54 mg × 100 g-1 DM) as dominants. Chrysin was the compound which in the highest degree differentiated investigated populations (CV=0.77). Conclusion. Obtained results indicate that investigated common skullcap populations differed in terms of the total content of flavonoids as well as the content of indentified flavonoids in the herb. However, there was no clear relationship between geographical localization of populations and the content of identified flavonoids in raw material.
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