Breeding and cultivation of industrial hemp in Poland

LIDIA GRABOWSKA, MICHAŁ RĘBARZ, MAGDALENA CHUDY

Abstract

In recent years we are witnesses of the growth of interest in agriculture, industry and environmental movements in reproducible plant materials, including fibrous hemp – a plant attractive both to the agriculture and many industries. In addition to traditional textile use, the use of hemp found, inter alia, in the paper industry, construction materials, automotive, energy, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Also in Poland, after the crisis, the growth of interest in hemp is demonstrated by the increase in area from 100 ha in 2003 to more than 1,600 ha in 2008. In Poland, work with hemp breeding started in 1946. At that time, the content of crude fiber in straw was only 14.3%. As a result of the multi-breeding work out this contents grew to 25–30%. The first the Polish monoecious hemp variety, entered in 1968 in the Register of Varieties is Białobrzeskie. This variety of high economic value has successfully grown to this days not only in Poland, but also in the European Union. At present, in the National Register of COBORU there are five varieties of monoecious hemp grown in INF&MP: Białobrzeskie, Beniko, Silesia, Tygra and Wielkopolskie. These are varieties adapted to Polish climate and soil conditions. When applied for proper growing conditions, they ensure high and stable yields. In accordance with the requirements of the Drugs Act of 29 July 2005, which regulates the cultivation of hemp in Poland, all Polish varieties and breeding prospective families contain less than 0.2% of hallucinogens. Growing hemp does not require, as a rule, use of plant chemical protection, provides high yields, leaving the soil in a very good structure. The new varieties, technologies and cultivation of cannabis harvest to total mechanization and obtain the raw material for specific technological parameters, caused the hemp plant has become attractive for both agriculture and industry. Key words: natural fibres, hemp, hemp breeding, dioecious hemp, monoecious hemp, hemp agrotechnology
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