Comparative toxicological effects of orally and intraperitoneally administered aqueous extracts of Abrus precatorius leaf in Mus musculus

SAGANUWANALHAJI SAGANUWAN, PATRICK A. ONYEYILI, ATIKATU O. SULEIMAN

Abstract

Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, reducing sugar, total glycoside and saponin glycosides in high concentration. Proximate analysis revealed the presence of moisture (6.18%), dry matter (93.90%), crude protein (12.06%), crude fibre (15.33%), nitrogen free extract (34.12%), ash (12.28%) and oil (19.21%). Comparative toxicological assessment of orally and intraperitoneally administered aqueous extracts of Abrus precatorius leaf was carried out in Swiss albino mice. Median lethal doses (LD50) of orally and intraperitoneally administered aqueous extracts of Abrus precatorius leaf were estimated at dose levels of 2558.9 mg/kg and 638 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Intraperitoneal 10 mg/kg body weight of the extract caused increased packed cell volume, neutropenia and decreased aspartate aminotransferase. However, 50 mg/kg oral dose caused increased packed cell volume, neutropenia, decreased alkaline phosphatase and hypochloraemia, whereas oral aqueous dose of 250 mg/kg of body weight caused body weight gain, neutropenia, decreased asparatate aminotransferase and alanineaminotransferase. All the test doses caused lymphocytosis and hypercreatinaemia, hence aqueous extract of Abrus precatorius leaf is toxic at dose levels of 10, 50 and 250 mg/kg body weight.
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