The optimization of extraction process of white mulberry leaves and the characteristic bioactive properties its powder extract
Introduction: Powder extracts from white mulberry leaves (Morus alba L.) are desirable due to their simplicity of use. Powders intended for use in food and dietary supplements can be obtained by various methods, including water extraction and spray drying. Objective: The aim of the work was to optimize the aqueous process of extraction of white mulberry leaves and characterization of bioactive properties of the obtained extract powder. Methods: The DNJ and flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol) contents and were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Total phenolic contents were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH assays. Results: The mulberry leaf extraction process has been optimized. The obtained powdered mulberry leaf extract proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds. Characteristic phenolic compounds detected in mulberry leaves and their powder extract were quercetin and kaempferol. The sum of polyphenols was 10.9 mg GAE/g dry matter in the raw material, whereas in the powder extract 42.6 mg GAE/g dry matter. In addition, it was found that the obtained powdered extract is characterized by a five-fold higher, in comparison to the raw material, the content of antioxidant activity measured by ABTS and DPPH tests. The content of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) in the powder extract was nearly four times higher than in dry mulberry leaves. Conclusion: The optimized process of water extraction of white mulberry leaves allows to keep valuable bioactive components and to obtain their high concentration.