Contribution of Polish agrotechnical studies on Cannabis sativa L. to the global industrial hemp cultivation and processing economy
Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) attracts increasing interest of growers, in relation to both industrial and medical purposes. Construction is the most promising area of the economy for hemp, and specifically, the fast-growing production of insulation and bio-composite materials. The most significant factors affecting the final yield of hemp seeds and biomass include: climatic factors, i.e. influence of weather conditions that determines the content of cannabinoids in plants; genetic predisposition of the variety used as well as agrotechnical factors. The article provides information on the botanical characteristics of fiber hemp, hemp cultivation area, Polish monoecious varieties of industrial hemp, hemp's agricultural requirements, including: the demand for macroelements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium); choice of soil, pioneer crop, and field preparation; sowing timing and density; harvest time; water conditions; heat and light requirements for hemp. The review article is focused mainly on the results of studies carried out at the Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants, data of the Agency for Restructuring and Modernization of Agriculture (ARiMR), Research Centre for Cultivar Testing (COBORU), European Industrial Hemp Association (EIHA), published in 2008 - 2018.