Natural aldose reductase inhibitors for treatment and prevention of diabetic cataract: A review
Introduction: Aldose reductase (AR) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of glucose to sorbitol responsible for the development of diabetic complications like cataracts. Medicinal plants contain several phytocompounds that can inhibit this enzyme. Objective: The purpose of this review is to cite medicinal plants that have been tested for their ability to inhibit aldose reductase and consequently prevent cataracts and classify the major isolated compounds that have this activity. Methods: We reviewed 154 articles published between 1954 and 2020 in English via three databases: ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and PubMed. We have classified the plants that showed a significant anti-cataract effect, in the form of a list including the scientific and family names of each plant. Also, we have cited the IC50 values and the active constituents of each plant that showed inhibitory activity towards AR. Results: We have described 38 herbs belonging to 29 families. Besides, 47 isolated compounds obtained from the cited herbs have shown an AR inhibitory effect: luteolin, luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, apigenin, 3,5-di-O-caffeoyl-epi-quinic acid, delphinidin 3-O-β-galactopyranoside-3’-O-β-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid methyl ester, andrographolide, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 1,2,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 7-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3-methyl-8-β-O-D-glucoside-2H-chromen-2- one, E-4-(60-hydroxyhex-30-en-1-yl)phenyl propionate, delphinidin 3-O-β-galactopyranoside-3’,5’-di- O-β-glucopyranoside, 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 1,2,6-tri- O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanol, (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methanol, trans-anethole, gallic acid 4-O-β-D-(6’-O-galloyl)-glucoside, β-glucogallin, puerariafuran, quercetin, gallic acid 4-O-β-D-glucoside, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone, protocatechuic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid and syringic acid. Conclusion: natural therapy becomes an interesting alternative in the treatment and prevention of cataract by using medicinal plants rich in active compounds considered as AR inhibitors.