Influence of the physico-chemical factors, plant growth regulators, elicitors and type of explants on callus cultures of medicinal climbers of Passiflora L.
This paper reviews the available research results published in 2006–2011. The attention has been focused on biological processes in the in vitro callus cultures which were obtained from various species of medicinal climbers of Passiflora. Procedures of callus induction on different parts of plants including physico-chemical conditions, among others light, photoperiod, temperature, basal medium, concentration and composition of plant growth regulators: auxin – 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 1-naphtaleneacetic acid (NAA), picloram – PIC (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid), cytokinin – benzyladenine (BA), kinetin (KIN), thidiazuron (TDZ), and gibberellin GA3 were analyzed. The occurrence of complex interactions between these factors and the efficiency of callus induction as well as its proliferation and development were described. The experiments in callus culture (induction of somatic embryogenesis, indirect organogenesis, cell suspension cultures) including studies concerning the effect of the elicitor (methyl jasmonate, MeJA) and the precursor (L-tryptophan) as well as phytochemical investigations were summarized. It has been found on the basis of reviewed bibliography for a systematic research in this area.The important role of callus cultures in search of an alternative source of plant material (biomaterial) for traditional crop of plants from Passiflora spp. without the involvement of climatic factors. The following species were studied in the callus cultures: P. alata, P.caerulea, P. cincinata, P. edulis, P. edulis var. flavicarpa, P. foetida, P. gibertii, P. incarnata, P. quadrangularis, P. pohlii, P. setacea, P. suberosa has been shown. Systematic review showed that only P. edulis and P. edulis var. flavicarpa were most frequently investigated. Few studies were performed for P. incarnata which is the most important source of raw material in Europe. Summarizing it can be concluded that the biotechnological methods including the plant in vitro techniques may play important role in development of pharmacognosy and phytotherapy.