Content of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (senecionine and senkirkine) in Tussilago farfara L. plants cultivated in vitro

MARIOLA DREGER, ANNA KRAJEWSKA-PATAN, MAŁGORZATA GÓRSKA-PAUKSZTA, MARZENA PIESZAK, BOGNA OPALA, AGNIESZKA GRYSZCZYŃSKA, ARTUR ADAMCZAK, PRZEMYSŁAW Ł. MIKOŁAJCZAK, WALDEMAR BUCHWALD

Abstract

Tussilago farfara L. (family Asteraceae) is a valuable medicinal plant that has been used as a cough suppressant and as an antibacterial and anti-inflammatory drug. Mucopolysaccharides, flavonoids, sterols, phenolic acids and pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are the main active compounds of coltsfoot. Due to hepatotoxic properties of some pyrrolizidine alkaloids, raw materials that contain PAs should be monitored and determined. The aim of present work was to establish nodal cultures of Tussilago farfara and to determine the content of senecionine and senkirkine in plants propagated in in vitro conditions. Eleven clones of coltsfoot derived from Polish natural populations were established. Rhizome buds were used as explants for the initiation of in vitro cultures on MS (Murashige and Skooge) medium. Every six weeks the shots and leaves were collected and dried. The HPLC method was applied for the identification and determination of senecionine and senkirkine. Content of pyrrolizidine alkaloids varied significantly depending on origin (population). An average sum of alkaloids (senecionine and senkirkine) ranged from 1.23 to 10.47 mg/100g d.w. that corresponds to 0.0013–0.011%, respectively.
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